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The Hebrew calendar (Hebrew: הלוח העברי) or Jewish calendar is the annual calendar used in Judaism. It determines the dates of the Jewish holidays, the appropriate Torah portions for public reading, Yahrzeits (the date to commemorate the death of a relative), and the specific daily Psalms which some customarily read. Two major forms of the calendar have been used: an observational form used prior to the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, and based on witnesses observing the phase of the moon, and a rule-based form first fully described by Maimonides in 1178 CE, which was adopted over a transition period between 70 and 1178.

The "modern" form is a rule-based lunisolar calendar, akin to the Chinese calendar, measuring months defined in lunar cycles as well as years measured in solar cycles, and distinct from the purely lunar Islamic calendar and the almost entirely solar Gregorian calendar. Because of the roughly 11 day difference between twelve lunar months and one solar year, the calendar repeats in a Metonic 19-year cycle of 235 lunar months, with an extra lunar month added once every two or three years, for a total of seven times every nineteen years. As the Hebrew calendar was developed in the region east of the Mediterranean Sea, references to seasons reflect the times and climate of the Northern Hemisphere.

Hebrew names of the months with their Babylonian analogs
  Hebrew name Length Babylonian analog Notes
1 Nisan / Nissan 30 days Nisanu called Aviv in the Tanakh
2 Iyar 29 days Ayaru called Ziv in the Tanakh
3 Sivan 30 days Simanu  
4 Tammuz 29 days Du`uzu  
5 Av 30 days Abu  
6 Elul 29 days Ululu  
7 Tishrei 30 days Tashritu called Eitanim in the Tanakh
8 Cheshvan 29 or 30 days Arakhsamna also spelled Heshvan or Marcheshvan; called Bul in the Tanakh
9 Kislev 30 or 29 days Kislimu also spelled Chislev
10 Tevet 29 days Tebetu  
11 Shevat 30 days Shabatu  
12 Adar I 30 days Adaru Only in leap years
13 Adar / Adar II 29 days Adaru  

During leap years Adar I (or Adar Aleph "first Adar") is considered to be the extra month, and has 30 days. Adar II (or Adar Bet "second Adar") is the "real" Adar, and has 29 days as usual. For example, in a leap year, the holiday of Purim is in Adar II, not Adar I.